滚球体育

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集中力量 提升核心关键技术攻关能力

2019-09-14
14 2020-09

09:04

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来源:滚球体育 作者: 陈宇学

滚球体育  DANGDESHIBADAYILAI,GUNQIUTIYUGUOJIAKUAIXIANGCHUANGXINXINGGUOJIAMAIJIN,ZONGTICHUANGXINNENGLITEBIESHIJICHENGCHUANGXINNENGLIXIANZHUTIGAO,YIXIEXINJISHU、XINYETAIDEFAZHANWEIJUSHIJIEQIANLIE。“SHISIWU”SHIQISHIGUNQIUTIYUGUOZHUANBIANFAZHANFANGSHI、YOUHUAJINGJIJIEGOU、CUJINDONGLIZHUANHUANDEGONGGUANQI,BIXUJIAKUAIHEXINGUANJIANJISHUGONGGUAN,YIYINGDUIGUONEIWAIGEZHONGFENGXIANTIAOZHAN。

  看清短板 直面新发展阶段科技领域新挑战

  中美经贸摩擦引发的科技封锁对滚球体育国科技创新能力提升产生较大影响。滚球体育当前,滚球体育国正在向全球价值链中高端迈进,美国视滚球体育国为战略竞争对手,对滚球体育国的技术封锁不仅体现在高筑关税壁垒、限制赴美投资、对华出口管制上,还包括限制美国企业通过知识产权许可向滚球体育国转让技术。这将影响正常的技术转移活动,不利于滚球体育国高新技术产业发展,增加了滚球体育国陷入全球价值链“低端锁定”的风险。同时,美国开始限制滚球体育国留学生学习的专业选择,以国家安全为名限制中美之间敏感学科的科技滚球体育和人员往来,加强了对重点技术人员出入境的签证管理,个别大学甚至停止了和中国大学的合作关系。这些都将增加滚球体育国引进海外高层次人才的难度,未来通过政府主导方式大规模引进国际人才面临困难。

  基础研究不足严重影响关键技术和核心技术突破。滚球体育当前,滚球体育国在科技政策层面对面向国家重大需求的应用基础研究重视程度仍有待提升。一方面,滚球体育国基础研究总体上仍游离于产业创新的实际需求,随着国家科技投入的大幅增加,科学家对科学前沿问题的研究兴趣会增强,而对联系实际的应用基础研究的积极性并不会必然增加,在经费比较充足的情况下,还往往会有所减弱。另一方面,一大批过去长期从事应用基础研究与技术开发的应用类科研院所转为企业后,越来越倾向于以短期盈利为中心,在应用基础研究和产业应用之间应该起到的桥梁纽带作用趋于弱化。此外,很多企业应用研究能力薄弱,难以吸收大学和科研院所的科研成果并有效转化,在利用外部知识实现核心技术突破方面意识不强、动力不足、能力不够。

  科技成果转化通道不顺畅严重影响创新效能。总体来看,作为科技成果的主要提供方,滚球体育国高校、科研院所具有转化价值的科技成果不多、比例不高,成果转化率整体偏低;作为技术需求方,滚球体育国各类企业科技成果转化能力普遍较弱。近年来,高校、科研院所和企业纷纷联合共建新型研发机构、协同创新中心、产业技术研究院、联合实验室和联合技术中心等多种形式的协同创新平台,但由于体制机制改革不到位,运行效果不够理想。高校与企业之间虽然签订了各种协议,建立了合作关系,但科技成果与产业应用脱节的问题尚未得到有效解决,新型科技成果转化平台的数量和质量均需提升。

  企业特别是国有企业创新动力尚未被完全激发。当前滚球体育国国有企业科技创新成果多而不强,从科技创新的质量水平看,这些成果多属于技术扩散型的应用创新,对于进入门槛高、投入需求大、研发周期长、市场风险较高的基础研究、核心技术等科技创新链条关键环节,国有企业的贡献度不高,发展潜力尚未充分发挥。这是滚球体育国跻身创新型国家前列的现实短板,也是未来发展潜力所在。

  知识产权管理和保护水平严重影响创新生态。滚球体育滚球体育国市场主体运用知识产权的能力和水平总体不高,沉睡专利、短命专利屡见不鲜,遇到知识产权纠纷时的保护和应对能力以及抵御知识产权滥用的能力也严重不足。对新技术、新模式的知识产权保护普遍滞后于其成长需要。网络侵权和制售假冒伪劣产品行为屡禁不绝,一些电商平台售假和侵权行为在国际上产生不良影响。

  瞄准痛点 以精准决策科学施策护航科技创新

  加强顶层设计,做到精准支持。

滚球体育  ZONGHEFENXI,ZHAOZHUNGUANJIAN。JIAQIANGDUIGUOJIAXUQIUDEZHANLVESAOMIAO,TUCHUJIAOCHAXINGHEZONGHEXING,DUICHUANGXINLIANTIAOJINXINGXITONGFENXI。GENJUKEJIGUIHUADEBUTONGDINGWEI,XINGCHENGGUOJIAXUQIUDEYINGYONGJICHUYANJIUZHUYAOKUANGJIA,BINGGENJUYINGXIANGCHANYEANQUANDECHENGDUFANYINGDAOXIANGYINGDEKEJIGUIHUAZHONG,XINGCHENGYANJIUZHINAN,YINDAOKEYANRENYUANYOUZHENDUIXINGDIKAIZHANYINGYONGJICHUYANJIU。

  TONGCHOUXIEDIAO,ZHONGDIANZHICHI。CUJINKEJIJIEYUCHANYEBUMENSHENDUXIETONG,ZUOHAOCHUANGXINLIANTIAOGEGEHUANJIEJIANDEDUIHUAYUDUIJIE。CONGGUOJIACENGMIANJIAQIANGDINGCENGSHEJI,GUNQIUTIYUXIANGDUIWENDINGDEYINGYONGJICHUYANJIUTUANDUI,FAHUIXINXINGJUGUOTIZHIYOUSHI。YISHIZHENGFUZHICHIHESHICHANGJIZHIXIANGJIEHE,XUANZEDUICHANYEDAIDONGXINGDA、FUSHEXIAOYINGQIANGDEYINGYONGJICHUYANJIULINGYUYUYIZHANGQIZHICHI。ERSHIWANSHANXIANGGUANTIZHIJIZHI,CHONGFENWAJUEHEKUODAYUANYOUXINGYEXINGKEYANYUANSUODECHANYEXITONGJICHENGHEHEXINGONGTONGJISHUDEDUTEZUOYONG。SANSHIFAHUICHANYEBUMENNIUDAIZUOYONG,MIANXIANGQUANCHANYEHEQUANSHEHUIJINXINGYINGYONGJICHUYANJIUCHENGGUODEZHUANYIHEKUOSAN。

  增加创新供给,全面提高原始创新能力。

  JIADAJICHUYANJIUTOURULIDUHEQIANGDU。JINYIBUJIADAJICHUYANJIUTOURU,YINDAOHEDAIDONGSHEHUILILIANGDUIJICHUXINGYANJIUTIGAOTOURU。BIRU,YINDAOHEGULIYOUSHILIDEQIYEKAIZHANJICHUYANJIUHUOTOUZIJICHUYANJIU,QIANGHUAYINGYONGJICHUYANJIUTOURUBAOZHANGLIDU。ZAIZENGJIAZONGTOURUDETONGSHI,YINGJINYIBUWANSHANZHIDUJIZHI,TUIDONGDIFANGZHENGFUHEZHONGYANGQIYEJIADADUIJICHUYANJIUDETOURULIDUHEPINGTAIGUNQIUTIYULIDU。

  ZENGJIARENCAIGONGJI。JIADAGUOJIACAIZHENGHEDIFANGCAIZHENGDUIKEJIRENCAIDEZHENGCEZHICHI,ZHONGDIANJIADAJICHUYANJIUXIANGGUANXUEKEGUNQIUTIYU,YOUHUAJICHUYANJIURENCAIDECHENGZHANGHUANJINGHEPEIYANGJIZHI。YINGZAOGENGJIAKUANSONGDECHUANGXINHUANJING,GULISHICUO,KUANRONGSHIBAI;FAHUISHICHANGLILIANGHUIJIKEJILINGJUNRENCAIHELINGXIANCHUANGXINTUANDUI,XIYINGENGDUOGUOJIDINGJIANRENCAILAIHUAGONGZUO;JIYUCHUANGXINTUANDUIGENGDUOZIZHUQUAN,DAZAOZHUANYEHUADEGONGCHENGYANFADUIWU。WANSHANGONGCHENGJISHURENCAIPEIYANGTIXI,PEIYANGGONGCHENGJISHULINGJUNRENCAI,MANZUCHUANGXINXINGGUOJIAGUNQIUTIYUDUIGAOCENGCIYINGYONGXINGGONGCHENGJISHUCHUANGXINRENCAIDEXUQIU。JIJITUIJINXINGONGKEGUNQIUTIYU,GOUJIANMIANXIANGKEXUEJINGSHENHECHUANGXINNENGLIPEIYANGDEJIAOYULINIANHEJIAOYUFANGSHI,PEIYANGSHIJIANNENGLIQIANGDEXUESHENG。

  完善体制机制,提高整体创新效能。

滚球体育  DAPOTIZHIZHANGAI,YOUHUAXIETONGJIZHI。YISHIYAODAPOGAOXIAO、KEYANYUANSUOHEQIYEZHIJIANDETIZHIJIZHIZHANGAI,ZHICHIQIYEQIANTOUSHISHIZHONGDAKEJIXIANGMU。ZHENGHEGELEIKEJIZIYUAN,JIAQIANGJUYOUSHIJIEYILIUSHUIPINGDEZHANLVEKEJICHUANGXINJIDIGUNQIUTIYU,FAHUIGUGANQIYEHEZHUANZHIYUANSUOZUOYONG,CUJINJISHUCHENGGUOGONGCHENGHUA、CHANYEHUA。ERSHIJINYIBUJIJUQUANQIUCHUANGXINZIYUAN。BIRU,DUIWAIYANFATOUZIDEWAIHUIZIJINSHIYONGJIANGUANYINGQUBIEYUYIBANMAOYITOUZIZIJIN,TUIDONGGUNQIUTIYUGUOBENTUQIYEZAIQUANQIUBUJUYANFAZIYUAN。SANSHIJIANLIKEXUEJIAHECHANYEJIEJIAOHUXIETONGJIZHI。ZHICHIYIXIEXUQIUDAOXIANGDEZHONGDAKEJIJIHUAHUOZHENDUIGUOJIAZHONGDAXUQIUJIANLIDEZONGHEJIAOCHAXINGKEJIZHONGXIN。ZAIZHANLVEGUIHUAHEXIANGMUZHINANZHIDINGGUOCHENGZHONG,YINDAOKEXUEJIAJIANGCHANYEZHENSHIXUQIUZHUANHUAHENINGLIANWEIJICHUYANJIUDEKEXUEWENTI,TUIDONGCONGSHIYINGYONGJICHUYANJIUDEKEXUEJIAGENGHAOMIAOZHUNCHANYEXUQIU,TIGONGYANJIUZHICHENG。

滚球体育  FAZHANKEJIGUNQIUTIYU,QIANGHUAZHENGCELUODI。PEIYU、ZHICHIHEYINDAOKEJIZHONGJIEGUNQIUTIYUJIGOUXIANGGUNQIUTIYUZHUANYEHUA、GONGNENGSHEHUIHUA、ZUZHIWANGLUOHUA、YUNXINGGUIFANHUAFANGXIANGFAZHAN,ZHUANGDAZHUANYEYANFASHEJIGUNQIUTIYUQIYE,PEIYUZHISHICHANQUANGUNQIUTIYUSHICHANG,WANSHANJISHUJIAOYISHICHANGTIXI,CHONGFENFAHUIKEJISHETUANZAITUIDONGQUANSHEHUICHUANGXINHUODONGZHONGDEZUOYONG。ZHENDUIYOUXIEZHENGCELUOSHINANDEWENTI,GUOJIACENGMIANYINGRENZHENSHULI、GUIBINGGUANLI,ZENGQIANGZHENGCEZHIJIANDEXIETONGXIAOYING,SHIFANGZHENGCEHONGLI。

  提升创新需求,保障创新收益。

滚球体育  WANSHANGUOCHANHEXINGUANJIANJISHUDECHANYEHUAYINGYONGJIZHI。ZHIDINGZHENGFUCAIGOUZHONGSHOUGOUHEDINGGOUDESHISHIXIZE,ZAIZHAOTOUBIAO、HETONGHEJIAGEFANGMIANJIYUSHOUTAISHOUTAOSHEBEIZHENGCEYOUHUI。ZHENDUIGAOJISHUHANLIANGDESHOUTAISHOUTAOCHANPIN,ZAIFUHESHIMAOZUZHI《BUTIEYUFANBUTIEXIEYI》QIANTIXIA,YUNXUSHIXINGHOUBUCHANGSHIYANFACAIGOUZHENGCE,JIGENJUSHOUTAISHOUTAOSHEBEIYANFACHENGBEN,BUTIEQIYIDINGBILIDEYANFAJINGFEI。YANFACHENGGUOSHANGYEHUAQIANDEZHENGFUYUEDINGCAIGOUYOUZHUYUXINGCHENGWENDINGDESHICHANGYUQI,DUIBAOZHANGCHUANGXINSHOUYI、JIAKUAIHEXINGUANJIANJISHUSHICHANGHUAHECHANYEHUAYIYIZHONGDA。ZHENGFUYUXIANXIANGSHICHANGFABUJISHUGUIGE、CHANPINXINGNENGHECAIGOUGUIMODENG,ZAIQIYETIJIAODECHUANGXINJIEJUEFANGANJICHUSHANG,ZHENGQISHUANGFANGQIANDINGCHUANGXINCAIGOUHETONG。DANGCHUANGXINCHANPINXINGNENGZAIHETONGYUEDINGKUANGJIANEINENGMANZUCAIGOUXUQIUSHI,ZHENGFUBUMENXUANZHAOYUEDINGDEGUIMOHEJIAGEWANCHENGCAIGOU。

滚球体育  JIAQIANGZHISHICHANQUANBAOHUYUYUNYONG。WANSHANZHISHICHANQUANFALVTIXI,TIGAOCHUANGXINZHEZHISHICHANQUANYISHI;JIJICUJINZHISHICHANQUANYUJINRONGYOUJIJIEHE。JINYIBUKUODAZHISHICHANQUANZHIYAHEBAOXIANGUIMO,TANSUOZHISHICHANQUANZHENGQUANJIAOYIDENGZIBENHUAXINMOSHI。TONGGUOTIGAOLIFABIAOZHUNHEZHIFASHUIPING,JIADADUIZHISHICHANQUANQINQUANWEIFAYUBUZHENGDANGJINGZHENGXINGWEIDECHENGZHILIDU,TIGAOWEIFACHENGBEN。

  〔ZUOZHEXIZHONGYANGDANGXIAO(GUOJIAXINGZHENGXUEYUAN)XIJINPINGXINSHIDAIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYISIXIANGYANJIUZHONGXINYANJIUYUAN〕

(责编: 毕阳)

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