滚球体育

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供给侧结构性改革对经济学的创新性贡献

2018-12-03
03 2019-12

09:23

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来源:滚球体育 作者: 王东京

  DANGDESHIJIUJIESIZHONGQUANHUISHENYITONGGUODE《ZHONGGONGZHONGYANGGUANYUJIANCHIHEWANSHANZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHIDU、TUIJINGUOJIAZHILITIXIHEZHILINENGLIXIANDAIHUARUOGANZHONGDAWENTIDEJUEDING》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《JUEDING》)QIANGDIAO,JIANCHIYIGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGEWEIZHUXIAN,JIAKUAIGUNQIUTIYUXIANDAIHUAJINGJITIXI。DANGQIAN,WENDINGJINGJIZENGZHANGDEZHONGDIANSHIJIEJUEJIEGOUWENTI,JIEJUEJIEGOUWENTIBIXUCONGGONGJICEFALI,CONGGONGJICEJIEJUEJIEGOUWENTIYAOJIANCHIYONGGAIGEDEBANFA。GONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGEBUJINSHITUIDONGZHONGGUOJINGJIGAOZHILIANGFAZHANDEFANGAN,YESHITUIDONGQUANQIUJINGJIGAOZHILIANGFAZHANDEFANGAN,DUIJINGJIXUELILUNDEFAZHANJUYOUYUANCHUANGXINGGONGXIAN。

  稳定经济增长的重点是解决结构问题

  YIGEGUOJIAYAOWENDINGJINGJIZENGZHANG,QIANTISHIGONGQIUZONGLIANGYUGONGQIUJIEGOUDOUYAOBAOCHIJUNHENG。RANER,YIWANGDADUOSHUJINGJIXUEJIAZHIGUANZHUZONGLIANGJUNHENGQUEHUSHILEJIEGOUJUNHENG。

  FAGUOJINGJIXUEJIASAYIZAI1803NIANCHUBANDE《ZHENGZHIJINGJIXUEGAILUN》ZHONGSHOUCITICHULEGONGJIZIDONGCHUANGZAOXUQIUDEYUANLI,JISAYIDINGLV,QILUNZHENGLUOJISHI: RENMENMAICHUZIJIDESHANGPIN,MUDESHIWEILEGOUMAIBIERENDESHANGPIN,JIRANDAJIADOUWEIMAIERMAI,YOUGONGJIJIUYIDINGHUIYOUXUQIU,GONGQIUKEYIZIDONGJUNHENG。XIANRAN,SAYISUOSHUODEGONGQIUJUNHENG,ZHIDESHIZONGLIANGJUNHENG。

滚球体育  20SHIJI30NIANDAI,XIFANGSHIJIEFASHENGLEJINGJIDAXIAOTIAO,PUBIANDESHENGCHANGUOSHENGHESHIYELINGSAYIDINGLVBUGONGZIPO。1936NIANKAIENSICHUBAN《JIUYE、LIXIHEHUOBITONGLUN》(JIANCHENG《TONGLUN》),TICHUGUOJIAYINGGAIGANYUJINGJI,YONGKUOZHANGXINGCAIZHENGZHENGCECIJITOUZIYUXIAOFEI,XIANQILEYICHANGKAIENSIGEMING。KAIENSISUIQUANPANFOUDINGSAYIDINGLV,DANTASUOGUANZHUDETONGYANGYESHIZONGLIANGJUNHENG。

  《TONGLUN》YIDUBEIXIFANGGUOJIAFENGWEIGUOCE。KEXIHAOJINGBUZHANG,20SHIJI70NIANDAIXIFANGGUOJIAXIANHOUXIANRU“ZHIZHANG”,YUSHIRENMENYOUFENFENPIPINGKAIENSIKAICUOLEYAOFANG,YILAFUWEIDAIBIAODEGONGJIXUEPAISHOUDAOLEGUANZHU。GONGJIXUEPAITICHUZHENGFUYINGZHONGDIANJIANSHUIERBUSHIZENGJIAGONGGONGZHICHU,ZHEIYIZHUZHANGYUKAIENSIBINGWUSHIZHIXINGBUTONG,LIANGZHEJIEZHUZHANGCIJITOUZI,QUBIEZAIYUQIANZHEZHUZHANGKUODASIRENTOUZI,HOUZHEZHUZHANGZENGJIAGONGGONGTOUZI。

滚球体育  CONGSAYIDAOKAIENSIZAIDAOGONGJIXUEPAI,GUANZHUDEDOUSHIZONGLIANGJUNHENG。ZAITAMENKANLAI,SHICHANGJUNHENGDEGUANJIANZAIZONGLIANGERFEIJIEGOU。

  YUYIWANGJINGJIXUEJIADEKANFAMINGXIANBUTONG,XIJINPINGZONGSHUJITICHUDEGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGE,QIANGDIAOGUANZHUHEJIEJUEJIEGOUXINGWENTI。ZHEIYILUNDUANJIJIANCHILEMAKESIDESHEHUIZAISHENGCHANLILUN,YOUCHUANGXINLESHICHANGJUNHENGLILUN。

滚球体育  MAKESIZAI《ZIBENLUN》ZHONGCENGDUISHICHANGJUNHENGZUOGUOYANMILUNZHENG,DECHUDEJIELUNSHI: ZONGLIANGJUNHENGBINGBUDAIBIAOJIEGOUJUNHENG。MAKESIZHICHU,SHEHUIZONGZIBENZAISHENGCHANYAOSHUNLIJINXING,TIAOJIANSHIYAOTONGSHISHIXIANJIAZHIBUCHANGYUSHIWUBUCHANG。JIAZHIBUCHANGZHIZONGLIANGPINGHENG,SHIWUBUCHANGZHIJIEGOUPINGHENG。RUOZHIYOUZONGLIANGJUNHENGMEIYOUJIEGOUJUNHENG,ZUIZHONGRENGHUIDAOZHIGONGQIUZONGLIANGDESHIHENG。20SHIJI30NIANDAIXIFANGGUOJIADEJINGJIDAXIAOTIAOSUIRANBIAOXIANWEIZONGLIANGSHIHENG,SHENCENGYUANYINQUESHIJIEGOUSHIHENG。

  HEWEIZONGLIANGJUNHENGYUJIEGOUJUNHENG?JUGELIZI: JIADINGYIDINGSHIQIZONGGONGJIWEI1000WANYUAN,ZONGXUQIUYESHI1000WANYUAN,CISHIGONGQIUZONGLIANG(JIAZHIBUCHANG)SHIPINGHENGDE;DANCONGSHIWUBUCHANGKAN,JIADINGSHICHANGGONGJI1000DUNGANGCAI、2500DUNLIANGSHI,ERSHICHANGXUYAODEQUESHI800DUNGANGCAI、3000DUNLIANGSHI,YUSHIGANGCAIGUOSHENG200DUN,LIANGSHIQUEDUANQUE500DUN,GONGQIUJIEGOUBINGBUPINGHENG。

  RUGUOJIEGOUSHIHENGBUJIEJUE,SHEHUIZAISHENGCHANBIANWUFAJINXING,ZHANGCIYIWANGZONGLIANGYEHUISHIHENG。ZAISHICHANGJINGJITIAOJIANXIA,ZONGLIANGJUNHENGSHIYOUWUSHUGEJUBUJUNHENGJIAZONGQILAIDEJUNHENG,YIGEJINGJITINEIBUSHICHANGYAOCHUQING,QIANTISHIRENMENXIANGMAIDESHANGPINDOUNENGMAIDECHU,ERXIANGMAIDESHANGPINYEDOUNENGMAIDEDAO,FOUZEJIUHUIDAOZHILIANGZHONGJIEGUO: KUCUNZENGJIAHUOZHEXUQIUWAIYI。WULUNCHUXIANNAZHONGJIEGUO,ZONGLIANGDOUHUISHIHENG。YIDANJIEGOUSHIHENGZAOCHENGLEZONGLIANGSHIHENG,RUOBUJIEJUEJIEGOUWENTI,CIJIXUQIUZHIHUISHIDEQIFAN。KAIENSIDANGNIANZHUZHANGZHENGFUTONGGUOZENGJIACHIZICIJITOUZI,MUDESHIYAOSHIXIANZONGLIANGJUNHENG,RANERZHEIZHONGBANFAZHIZAIDUANQIGUANYONG,ZHANGQIQUESHIYINZHENZHIKE。DAOLIHENJIANDAN,RUGUOMOUZHONGCHANPINKUCUNZENGJIA,SHUOMINGSHENGCHANYIJINGGUOSHENG,CISHIYINGJIANSHAOSHENGCHANCAIDUI,DANZAIZHENGFUCIJIZHENGCEXIAQIYEHUIJIXUSHENGCHAN,ZHEIDUIJIEGOUSHIHENGWUYIYUXUESHANGJIASHUANG。GONGJIXUEPAITICHUDEQUANMIANJIANSHUIYEJIEJUEBULEJIEGOUXINGWENTI,1981NIANLIGENRUZHUBAIGONG,QISHOUJIUANGONGJIXUEPAIDEZHUZHANGXUEJIANZHENGFUKAIZHI,QUANMIANDIAOJIANGERENSUODESHUIHEGONGSILIRUNSHUI,CIJUSUIYIDUDAIDONGLEMEIGUOJINGJIDEFUSU,DANBINGWEIJIEJUEJIEGOUXINGWENTI,SUOYILIGENZHIZHENGHOUQIYOUPOBUDEYIKAISHIJIASHUI。

  解决结构问题应从供给侧发力

滚球体育  《TONGLUN》CHUBANZHIQIAN,JINGJIXUEJIAYIZHISHIZHONGSHIGONGJIGUANLIDE。19SHIJICHUSAYITICHUGONGJIZIDONGCHUANGZAOXUQIU,ZHELIDIANMINGXIANZAIGONGJICE。1890NIANMAXIEERCHUBAN《JINGJIXUEYUANLI》,JIANGGONGJIYUXUQIUJIEHEQILAIYANJIUJUBUJUNHENG,ZHONGDIANYEBUZAIXUQIUCE。KAIENSIWEIHEYAOJIANGSHICHANGJUNHENGDEZHONGDIANCONGGONGJICEZHUANXIANGXUQIUCENI?BIZHERENWEIYOUYIXIALIANGGEYUANYIN: QIYI,1929—1933NIANXIFANGGUOJIAFASHENGJINGJIDAXIAOTIAO,SAYIDINGLVWUNENGWEILI,WEIJIUZIBENZHUYIYUSHUIHUO,KAIENSILINGQILUZAOCHUANGLILEXUQIUGUANLILILUN,ZAIDUANQINEICHANSHENGLECIJIZENGZHANGHEZENGJIAJIUYEDEXIAOGUO;QIER,GONGJINANYIDIAOKONG,XUQIUZEYIYUDIAOKONG,YINERXUQIUGUANLIZHENGCEGENGRONGYIBEIZHENGFUCAINA。LILUNSHANGJIANG,SHENGCHANCHUXIANGUOSHENGSHI,YAOHUIFUGONGQIUJUNHENG,JIKEJIANSHAOGONGJI,YEKEZENGJIAXUQIU。KEZAIKAIENSIKANLAI,JIANSHAOGONGJIJIUDEXIANZHISHENGCHAN,JINERZENGJIASHIYE,KUODAXUQIUBUJINKEYIZENGJIAJIUYE,ERQIEZHENGFUYONGKUOZHANGXINGZHENGCECIJIXUQIUYIYUCAOZUO。

  KAIENSILILUNHOULAIDAOZHIXIFANGJINGJIXIANRULEZHIZHANG。JIUQIYUANYIN,SHIYINWEISHIDAIDEBIANHUADONGYAOLEKAIENSILILUNDEGENJI。KAIENSIRENWEI,YIGEGUOJIACHUXIANSHENGCHANGUOSHENGSHIYINWEIYOUXIAOXUQIUBUZU,TAYONGBIANJIXIAOFEIQINGXIANGDIJIAN、YUQIZIBENBIANJISHOUYIDIJIAN、LIUDONGXINGPIANHAOSANDAXINLIGUILVDUIYOUXIAOXUQIUBUZUZUOLELUNZHENG。BIZHERENWEI,ZAIKAIENSISUOCHUDESHIDAI,TADEFENXIMEIYOUCUO,DANSUIZHEJINGJIHEKEJIDEFAZHAN,SHANGSHUSANDAGUILVYIYOULIANGGEBUCHENGLI。

  XIANKANBIANJIXIAOFEIQINGXIANGDIJIANGUILV。KAIENSIRENWEI,YOUYURENMENDEXIAOFEIZENGZHANGGANBUSHANGSHOURUZENGZHANG,SUIZHEXINZENGXIAOFEIZAIXINZENGSHOURUZHONGDEBILIXIAJIANG,RENMENHUIZENGJIACHUXU,XIAOFEIXUQIUHUIBUZU。KESHISHISHANG,JIN30NIANXIAOFEIXINDAIQIAORANXINGQI,CHUXULVBUSHENGFANJIANG。1940—1980NIAN,MEIGUOJUMINCHUXULVBAOCHIZAI7%~11%ZHIJIAN;2001NIANJIANGZHI-0.2%;2005NIANYOUJIANGZHI-2.7%。

  ZAIKANLIUDONGXINGPIANHAO。KAIENSIRENWEI,RENMENTONGCHANGYOUCHIYOUXIANJINDEPIANHAO,YINCIYINXINGLILVBUNENGTAIDI;YOUYUTOUZIDEBIANJISHOUYIDIJIAN,DANGTOUZISHOUYILVDIYUYINXINGLILVSHI,QIYEBIANBUHUIDAIKUANTOUZI,DAOZHITOUZIXUQIUXIAJIANG。RANERXIANZAI,XINYONGKAJIESUANHEYIDONGZHIFUFENGMIQUANQIU,YONGXIANJINZHIFUDEXINGWEIRUIJIAN,RENMENCHIYOUXIANJINDEPIANHAOYIDADAGAIBIAN。

  KAIENSIDEZHUISUIZHECENGDUIQILILUNZUOGUOXIUZHENG,DANZUIZHONGJIEYUSHIWUBU。KAIENSIBENRENTICHU: CONGJUMINYUQIYELIANGBUMENKAN,GONGJICEGUOMINSHOURU=CHUXU+XIAOFEI;XUQIUCEGUOMINSHOURU=TOUZI+XIAOFEI,ZHIYAOJIANGCHUXUZHUANHUAWEITOUZI,ZONGGONGQIUBIANKESHIXIANPINGHENG。YOUXUEZHEDUICITICHUZHIYI: JIARUOSHENGCHANYIJINGGUOSHENG,JIANGCHUXUZHUANHUAWEITOUZI,SHENGCHANQIBUSHIGENGJIAGUOSHENG。KAIENSIZHUISUIZHEJIESHISHUO,RUOJIANGLIANGBUMENKUOZHANWEIZHENGFU、QIYE、JUMINSANBUMEN,BIANKETONGGUOKUODAZHENGFUCAIGOUXIAOHUAGUOSHENGGONGJI。CIJIESHIBINGBUZHENGQUE: ZHENGFUKUODACAIGOUXUZENGJIASHOURU,ZHENGFUZENGJIASHOURUWUFEISHIJIASHUIHUOFAZHAI;WULUNJIASHUIHAISHIFAZHAI,DOUSHIBIJIZHANQIYETOUZI;ZHENGFUTOUZIZENGJIAERQIYETOUZIJIANSHAO,SHEHUIZONGXUQIUWEIBIHUIZENGJIA。KAIENSIZHUISUIZHEYOUJIESHISHUO,KETONGGUOKUODACHUKOUZHUANYIGUOSHENGGONGJI。ZHEIYIJIESHIYEBUCHENGLI: YIGUOCHUKOUSHIWEILEJINKOU,BINGYICIFENXIANGGUOJIFENGONGSHOUYI,RUOZHICHUKOUBUJINKOU,BUJINBUNENGFENXIANGGUOJIFENGONGSHOUYI,HAIHUIYINQIMAOYIMOCA;RUOJINCHUKOUBAOCHIPINGHENG,ZEBUKENENGZHUANYIGUOSHENGGONGJI。

滚球体育  KEJIAN,CONGXUQIUCEBUKENENGJIEJUEJIEGOUXINGMAODUN。

滚球体育  XIJINPINGZONGSHUJIZHICHU,DANGQIANGUNQIUTIYUGUO“JIEGOUXINGWENTIZUITUCHU,MAODUNDEZHUYAOFANGMIANZAIGONGJICE”。JIUSHISHUO,GUNQIUTIYUGUOSUIRANYECUNZAINEIXUBUZUWENTI,DANZHUYAOMAODUNSHIJIEGOUXINGMAODUN,JIEGOUXINGMAODUNBIXUCONGGONGJICEFALICAINENGJIEJUE。CONGJINGJIXUEJIAODUKAN,GAISHANGONGJIYESHIKUODAXUQIU: GAISHANGONGJIJIEGOUKEYIGENGHAOMANZUXUQIU;GAIJINGONGJIGUNQIUTIYUKEYIYINDAONEIXU;CHUANGZAOXINDEGONGJIKEYIPAISHENGCHUXINDEXUQIU。

  YIGEGUOJIADEJINGJIFAZHAN,GENBENSHANGYAOKAOGONGJICELAITUIDONG。YICICIKEJIHECHANYEGEMING,DAILAIYICICISHENGCHANLIDETISHENG,BINGBUDUANCHUANGZAOXINDEGONGJINENGLI。SHEHUIHUADASHENGCHANDETUCHUTEDIAN,JIUSHIGONGJICEYIDANSHIXIANLECHENGGONGDEDIANFUXINGCHUANGXIN,SHICHANGJIUHUIYIBOLANZHUANGKUODEJIAOYIJINXINGHUIYING。BIRU,GUOQURENMENCHUXINGZUOMACHE,JINTIANKEYIZUOHUOCHE、FEIJI;30NIANQIANRENMENDUISHOUJIBINGWUXUQIU,ZICONG“DAGEDA”CHUXIANYILAI,XINDEXUQIUHECHANYELIANBUDUANBEICHUANGZAOCHULAI,XIANZAIZHINENGSHOUJIYONGHUYIYUELAIYUEDUO。ZHEIDOUSHIZAIGONGJICETUIDONGJINGJIFAZHANDEANLI。

  从供给侧解决结构性矛盾要用改革的办法

  GUNQIUTIYUGUOJINGJIMIANLINDETUCHUWENTISHIJIEGOUXINGMAODUN,NEIME,YINGGAIZENYANGDIAOJIEGOU?JIEGOUDIAOZHENGDEGUOCHENGQISHIYESHIZIYUANPEIZHIDEGUOCHENG。YADANG·SIMICENGSHUOPEIZHIZIYUANYOULIANGZHISHOU,JIKANDEJIANDEZHENGFUYOUXINGZHISHOUYUKANBUJIANDESHICHANGWUXINGZHISHOU。DIAOJIEGOUYINGXUANNAZHISHOU?HUOZHESHUODIAOJIEGOUYINGYOUZHENGFUZHUDAOHAISHISHICHANGZHUDAO?GUNQIUTIYUGUOTUIDONGGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGE,QIANGDIAOYAOYONGGAIGEDEBANFADIAOJIEGOU。YONG“GAIGEDEBANFA”,DANGRANBUSHIYONGCHUANTONGJIHUAJINGJIDEBANFA,ERSHIYAOYOUSHICHANGZHUDAODIAOJIEGOU。

  DIAOJIEGOUWEIHEYAOYOUSHICHANGZHUDAO?ZHENGFUZHUDAODIAOJIEGOUYAOYOUSANGEQIANTI: DIYI,ZHENGFUYAOSHIXIANZHIDAOWEILAIZENYANGDEJIEGOUSHIHAOJIEGOU;DIER,ZHENGFURENYUANYAOBIQIYEJIAGENGDONGSHICHANG;DISAN,XINGZHENGDIAOJIEYAOBISHICHANGDIAOJIEGENGYOUXIAOLV。ZAIZHENSHISHIJIELI,YISHANGSANGEQIANTIHENNANCHENGLI。QIYEJIAYEMEIYOUWEIBUXIANZHIDEBENLING,YEBUKENENGZHIDAOWEILAIZENYANGDEJIEGOUSHIHAOJIEGOU,DANQIYEJIANENGGENJUSHICHANGJIAGEDEBIANHUASUISHIDIAOZHENGTOUZI,ZHEIYANGSUOSHENGCHANDECHANPINCAINENGGENGDAXIANDUDIFUHESHICHANGXUQIU,YOUCIXINGCHENGDEGONGJIJIEGOUDANGRANSHIHAODEJIEGOU。KEJIAN,SUOWEIQIYEJIADIAOJIEGOU,SHIZHISHISHICHANGJIAGEYINDAOQIYEJIADIAOJIEGOU。

滚球体育  YOUSHICHANGZHUDAODIAOJIEGOU,BINGBUSHISHUOZHENGFUKEYIZHISHENSHIWAI。XIANGFAN,ZHENGFUYAOGENGHAODIFAHUIZUOYONG。ZHENGFUDEZUOYONGZHUYAOYOUSANFANGMIAN: YISHIMINGQUEJIEDINGCHANQUANBINGYIFABAOHUCHANQUAN,YINGZAOGONGPINGJINGZHENGDESHICHANGHUANJING;ERSHIJINYIBUFANGKUANJIAGEGUANZHI,TUIDONGXINGCHENGGONGQIUJUEDINGJIAGEDESHICHANGJIZHI;SANSHIDAPOSHICHANGBILEIYUXINGYEZHUNRUXIANZHI,RANGSHENGCHANYAOSUCHONGFENLIUDONG。

  结论与启示

滚球体育  QIYI,GONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGESHIWEITUIDONGGUNQIUTIYUGUOJINGJIGAOZHILIANGFAZHAN、GUNQIUTIYUXIANDAIHUAJINGJITIXITICHUDEFANGAN。DANGQIANQUANQIUJINGJIDOUMIANLINZHEJIEGOUXINGWENTIDEKUNRAO,CONGZHEIGEJIAODUKAN,ZHONGGUOFANGANDUIQITAGUOJIAJIEJUEJIEGOUXINGWENTIYEJUYOUJIEJIANJIAZHI。

滚球体育  QIER,CONGJINGJILILUNDEJIAODUKAN,GONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGEJIBUTONGYUSAYIHEGONGJIXUEPAIDEGONGJIGUANLILILUN,YEBUTONGYUCHUANTONGJIHUAJINGJIDEJIEGOUDIAOZHENGFANGSHI,GONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGEZUOWEIXIJINPINGXINSHIDAIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIJINGJISIXIANGDEZHONGYAONEIRONGZHIYI,SHIDUIJINGJIXUELILUNDEZHONGDACHUANGXIN。

滚球体育  QISAN,GUANCHEZHONGYANGWENZHONGQIUJINGONGZUOZONGJIDIAO,BIXUZHONGDIANJIEJUEJIEGOUWENTI。TEBIESHIZAIGUNQIUTIYUGUOJINGJIMIANLINXIAXINGYALIDEBEIJINGXIA,YAOYIGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGEWEIZHUXIAN,JIANCHICONGGONGJICEFALI,YONGGAIGEDEBANFADIAOJIEGOU,SHISHICHANGZAIZIYUANPEIZHIZHONGQIJUEDINGXINGZUOYONG,TONGSHIGENGHAOFAHUIZHENGFUZUOYONG。

滚球体育  〔ZUOZHEXIZHONGGONGZHONGYANGDANGXIAO(GUOJIAXINGZHENGXUEYUAN)FUXIAOZHANG(FUYUANZHANG)、XIJINPINGXINSHIDAIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYISIXIANGYANJIUZHONGXINFUZHUREN〕

(责编: 毕阳)

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