滚球体育

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《共产党宣言》的时代价值

23 2018-03

09:36

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来源:滚球体育 作者: 牛先锋

  《GONGCHANDANGXUANYAN》(YIXIAJIANCHENG《XUANYAN》)YOUMAKESI、ENGESIHEZHU,1848NIAN2YUEYIDEWENZAILUNDUNFABIAO,TADEFABIAOBIAOZHIZHEMAKESIZHUYIDEDANSHENG。《XUANYAN》YONGXIANMINGTOUCHEDEYUYANCHANSHULEYIGEXINDESHIJIEGUAN,WEIRENSHIRENLEISHEHUIFAZHANTIGONGLEKEXUEDEFANGFALUN,WEIWUCHANJIEJIGEMINGTIGONGLEXINGDONGZHINAN。《XUANYAN》BUJINDUIXIOUERQIEDUISHIJIE,BUJINDUIFABIAODENEIGESHIDAIERQIEDUIDANGJINSHIDAI,DOUCHANSHENGLEJUDADEYINGXIANG。

  《宣言》科学解答了那个时代的基本问题。资本主义在西欧萌芽之后,经历了长时间的缓慢发展;18世纪下半叶,随着工业革命的到来,资本主义进入了狂飙突进阶段;到了19世纪中期,英国已经基本实现了生产方式与社会结构的双重转型。在生产方式上,机器大工业代替了工场手工业和农业,工业社会真正来临。在社会结构上,与传统生产方式相联系的阶级和阶层日益没落,与机器大工业相联系的资产阶级和无产阶级成为社会两大主要阶级。

  SHUANGZHONGZHUANXINGDEZHENGZHIJIEGUO,SHICENGJINGGAOAODEFENGJIANGUIZUHESHENSHENGJIAOZHUZAIJIQIDEHONGMINGSHENGZHONG,DIXIALEZUNGUIDETOULU,ZICHANJIEJISHANGSHENGWEISHEHUITONGZHIJIEJI;WUCHANJIEJIZUOWEIYIZHIDULIDEZHENGZHISHILIDIYICIDENGSHANGLELISHIWUTAI,KAISHIBADOUZHENGDEMAOTOUZHIJIEDUIZHUNZICHANJIEJI。

  ZICHANJIEJIHEWUCHANJIEJIDAODISHISHENMEYANGDEJIEJI?ZHEILIANGDAJIEJIZHIJIANDOUZHENGZUIZHONGHUIYOUSHENMEYANGDEJIEJU?ZHEICHENGWEINEIGESHIDAIDEJIBENWENTI,XUYAOSIXIANGJIAMENZUOCHUHUIDA。《XUANYAN》YONGKEXUEDEFANGFA、YANJINDELUOJI,CONGLILUNYUSHIJIANXIANGJIEHEDEJIAODU,JIESHILELIANGDAJIEJIDUILIDELISHISHISHI,DECHULE“ZICHANJIEJIDEMIEWANGHEWUCHANJIEJIDESHENGLISHITONGYANGBUKEBIMIANDE”ZHEIYIGUILVXINGJIELUN,ZHIMINGLEZIBENZHUYISHEHUIDEFAZHANQUSHIHEWUCHANJIEJIGEMINGDEFANGXIANG。

  《宣言》促成了社会主义从空想到科学的飞跃。社会主义作为一种理论形态,在资本主义萌芽时期就已出现,从1516年英国人莫尔《乌托邦》一书问世,到《共产党宣言》的发表,已经有300多年的历史。但由于资本主义发展不充分,也由于空想社会主义者历史观的局限,使他们对资本主义的认识一直陷入道德谴责之中,对社会主义的认识长期囿于天才的设想之中,社会主义300年来只是处于空想的状态。

滚球体育  《XUANYAN》CONGXIANSHIDEJINGJIGUANXIHEJIEJIGUANXICHUFA,YONGSHENGYUJIAZHIXUESHUOJIESHILEZIBENJIABOXUEGONGRENDEMIMI,SHIWUCHANJIEJIBEIBOXUE、BEIYAPODEGENYOUGONGZHIYUSHI,ZHICHUWUCHANJIEJIYAOCHEDIGAIBIANZIJIDEMINGYUNBIXUXIAOMIESIYOUZHI,YUCHUANTONGDESUOYOUZHIGUANXIHECHUANTONGDEGUANNIANSHIXINGZUICHEDIDEJUELIE;YONGWEIWUSHIGUANJIESHILESHEHUIGENGTIDEYIBANGUILV,BIAOMINGZICHANJIEJIMIEWANGZAIYUQISHENGCHANFANGSHIZIYOUDEMAODUN。ZICHANJIEJIZAIZIJIDEFAZHANJINCHENGZHONGBUJINDUANZAOLEZHIZISHENYUSIDIDEWUQI,ERQIECHANSHENGLEYUNYONGZHEIYIWUQIDEREN,DANGTACHUANGZAODECAIFUBUNENGWEIZIJIDEGUANXISUORONGNASHI,TADEWAIQIAOJIUYAOZHAHUILE,BODUOZHEJIUYAOBEIBODUOLE。《XUANYAN》BUJINZHAODAOLEZICHANJIEJIMIEWANGDEYUANYIN,ERQIEZHAODAOLEMAIZANGTADEJUEMUREN,SHIXIANLESHEHUIZHUYICONGKONGXIANGDAOKEXUEDEFEIYUE。

  《宣言》历史地改变了世界政治格局。滚球体育《宣言》是全世界工人阶级的“圣经”,“它无疑是全部社会主义文献中传播最广和最具有国际性的著作,是从西伯利亚起到加利福尼亚止的世界各国千百万工人共同的纲领”。共产党人以《宣言》阐述的共产主义为旗帜,在本国或国际范围内展开了反对资本主义的斗争。

滚球体育  1917NIANZAIEGONG(BU)DELINGDAOXIA,SHIYUEGEMINGQUDELESHENGLI,JIANLILESHIJIESHANGDIYIGESHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIA。CIHOU,SHIJIESHANGCHANSHENGLESHUYIQIANJIDEGONGCHANDANGZUZHIHESHEHUIZHUYIZUZHI,CHANSHENGLEYIPISHEHUIZHUYIGUOJIA,CONGGENBENSHANGGAIBIANLEZIBENZHUYIYITONGTIANXIADESHIJIEZHENGZHIGEJU。TEBIESHI1921NIANZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGDECHENGLI,SHIXIANKAIZHONGGUOLISHIHESHIJIELISHIZHANXINPIANZHANGDEWEIDASHIJIAN。ZAIBOLANZHUANGKUODEFAZHANLICHENGZHONG,ZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGDAILINGQUANGUOGEZURENMIN,JIANLILERENMINDANGJIAZUOZHUDEXINZHONGGUO,QUELILESHEHUIZHUYIJIBENZHIDU,KAICHUANGLEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIDAOLU,CONGGENBENSHANGGAIBIANLEZHONGGUORENMINDEQIANTUMINGYUN,JUEDINGLEZHONGGUOLISHIFAZHANDEZHENGQUEFANGXIANG,ZAISHIJIESHANGCHANSHENGLEGUANGFANERSHENKEDEYINGXIANG。

  20SHIJIMO,SULIANDONGOUFASHENGJUBIAN,SHIJIESHEHUIZHUYIXIANRUDICHAO。DANSHI,XINYANGJIANDINGDEZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGRENBINGCHICHUXINHESHIMING,CHENZHEJIANDING、FENYONGQIANJIN,JINGGUOZHANGQINULI,ZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIJINRULEXINSHIDAI,ZHENGCHENGWEI21SHIJIKEXUESHEHUIZHUYIFAZHANDEQIZHI,CHENGWEIZHENXINGSHIJIESHEHUIZHUYIDEZHONGLIUDIZHU。

  《宣言》提供了认识当代世界发展的方法。马克思主义认为: “无论哪一个社会形态,在它所能容纳的全部生产力发挥出来以前,是决不会灭亡的;而新的更高的生产关系,在它的物质存在条件在旧社会的胎胞里成熟之前,是决不会出现的。”共产主义产生的物质条件需要在资本主义旧社会中孕育,当资本主义旧社会再也不能容纳这些物质条件时,共产主义的胜利就不可避免地到来了。可以说,经过生产力的高度发展、物质财富的极大丰富、精神境界的极大提高,共产主义必将实现,这是人类社会发展规律使然,这是历史唯物主义的基本结论。当前,有人怀疑《宣言》中“资产阶级的灭亡和无产阶级的胜利是同样不可避免的”这一论断的科学性,甚至得出“共产主义渺茫论”“马克思主义过时论”的错误观点。其实,这种认识看到的只是表象,并没有抓住世界变化的本质和方向。

滚球体育  SHEHUIFAZHANSHICONGXIANSHITIAOJIANCHUFAZHUBUZOUXIANGMUBIAODEGUOCHENG。MUQIANGONGCHANZHUYIMUBIAOMEIYOUSHIXIAN,BINGBUSHISHUOGONGCHANZHUYIXUWUPIAOMIAO。GONGCHANZHUYISHISHEHUIZHUYISHEHUIFAZHANDEGAOJIJIEDUAN,XUYAOJIDAIREN、SHIJIDAIRENSHENZHIJISHIDAIRENDENULICAINENGJIANCHENG。GONGCHANZHUYIDAITIZIBENZHUYIDEYUNDONGCONGLAIJIUMEIYOUTINGZHIGUO。XINSHIDAIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIJIUSHIKEXUESHEHUIZHUYIZAIZHONGGUODADISHANGDESHENGDONGSHIJIAN,JIUSHITONGXIANGGONGCHANZHUYIYUANDAMUBIAODEZHONGGUODAOLU。

  《宣言》是共产党人的精神富矿。滚球体育《宣言》第一个中文全译本由陈望道翻译,1920年在上海出版。《宣言》的出版,促成了1921年中国共产党的成立。中国共产党一成立,就把共产主义作为自己的奋斗目标,把为中国人民谋幸福、为中华民族谋复兴作为自己的初心和使命。

  JINGGUOJINBAINIANDEBUXIENULI,DANGSUOLINGDAODESHIYEYIJINGQUDELEJUSHIZHUMUDECHENGJIU,JINTIAN,GUNQIUTIYUBILISHISHANGRENHESHIQIDOUGENGJIEJIN、GENGYOUXINXINHENENGLISHIXIANZHONGHUAMINZUWEIDAFUXINGDEMUBIAO。SHIXIANWEIDAMUBIAOXUYAOWEIDAJINGSHEN,《XUANYAN》QIANGDIAOGONGCHANDANGREN“MEIYOUTONGZHENGGEWUCHANJIEJIDELIYIBUTONGDELIYI”;TAMENSHIZHONGSHI“ZUIJIANJUEDE”TUIDONGSHEHUIQIANJINDELILIANG;TAMENHAOBU“YINMANZIJIDEGUANDIANHEYITU”,YAOJIANJUETONG“CHUANTONGDESUOYOUZHIGUANXI”HE“CHUANTONGDEGUANNIAN”SHIXING“ZUICHEDIDEJUELIE”,DENGDENG。《XUANYAN》SHIGONGCHANDANGRENDEJINGSHENFUKUANG,TASUOYUNHANDEWUSIDEFENGXIANJINGSHEN、CHEDIDEDOUZHENGJINGSHEN、HAOMAIDEGEMINGJINGSHEN、CHONGGAODERENLEIQINGHUAIDENG,ZHENGSHIJILIDANGJINDEZHONGGUOGONGCHANDANGRENGAIGECHUANGXIN、RUIYIJINQUDEJINGSHENDONGLI,BAOCHIZHONGCHENG、GANJING、DANDANGPINGEDEXINNIANZHIJI。ZAIQUANMIANGUNQIUTIYUSHEHUIZHUYIXIANDAIHUAGUOJIADEXINZHENGCHENGSHANG,XUYAOJIANRENBUBA、QIEERBUSHEDENULIHEFUCHU,LAIBUDEBANDIANSONGXIEHEPANGHUANG。

滚球体育  SHIXIANWEIDAMUBIAOXUYAOWEIDASIXIANG。《XUANYAN》“SUOCHANSHUDEYIBANYUANLIZHENGGESHUOLAIZHIDAOXIANZAIHAISHIWANQUANZHENGQUEDE”,DANDUIZHEIXIEYUANLIDESHIJIYUNYONGYAOSUISHISUIDIYIDANGSHIDETIAOJIANWEIZHUANYI。XIJINPINGXINSHIDAIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYISIXIANGJISHIDUIMAKESIZHUYIYIBANYUANLIDEYUNYONG,YOUCONGLILUNHESHIJIANJIEHESHANGXITONGHUIDALEXINSHIDAIJIANCHIHEFAZHANSHENMEYANGDEZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYI、ZENYANGJIANCHIHEFAZHANZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYIZHEIGEZHONGDASHIDAIKETI,SHIDANGDAIZHONGGUODEMAKESIZHUYI、21SHIJIMAKESIZHUYI。ZAISHIXIANZHONGHUAMINZUWEIDAFUXINGDEXINZHENGCHENGSHANG,JIANCHIXIJINPINGXINSHIDAIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYISIXIANG,JIUSHIJIANCHIMAKESIZHUYISIXIANG,JIUSHIDUI《XUANYAN》DEGUANGDAHEHONGYANG。

  (ZUOZHEXIZHONGYANGDANGXIAOXIJINPINGXINSHIDAIZHONGGUOTESESHEHUIZHUYISIXIANGYANJIUZHONGXINYANJIUYUAN)

  (网络编辑: 张慧婷)

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